Incredibly interesting how Heidegger in “Being and Time” describes the features of research and theoretical research “Posing a problem means trying to know the entity as to its what-it is and its being-so. The search for knowledge can become a “research”, if it leads to the ostensive determination of what the problem is about. Searching, as searching around… has a sought-after. Every search around… in some way, is questioning something and someone. In addition to the sought, the seeking requires the questioned. When the search takes on the characteristics of real research, that is, a specifically theoretical structure, what is sought must be determined and brought to a conceptual level. In the search, we therefore find, as the true intentional object of the search, the searched, what constitutes the final end of the search. Seeking itself, as the behaviour of an entity, the seeker has the character of being its own.”
that’s the important passage “When the search takes on the characteristics of real research, that is, a specifically theoretical structure, what is sought must be determined and brought to a conceptual level.”
“Being and Time” searches for the answer to the question of Being, thought would be that we have to search the answer for Das Seinsfrage und Das Zeitfrage, the question of being and the question of time. Does time exist at all? and if time exists how do we define time? does time fall into a metaphysical entity and category? does time actually have a univocal measure of time itself that can be equal for anyone? Why do we have populations living in different eras? why do we have different calendar years? why have we decided that the Greek-Roman calendar is the measure of time, Das Seins falls within? Why Time is linear and has an eschatological meaning, instead of being cyclical according to natural cycles, φύση (fysi-nature), κύκλος (kyklos-cycle).
we could observe for instance that the eschatological interpretation of time is actually a fallacy, of what time in nature describes. Because Das Seins discovered nature, through φύση (fysi) the fluctuation of day and night of light and darkness, the being discovered the dimension of time, as a possible dimension of the world the Being finds itself catapulted into. Also, was ist das Seins? The Being finds itself in the flow of consciousness that flows with the flowing of Time. Πάντα Ρέι, everything flows.
Also with “Being and Time”, Heidegger tries to give an answer to the question of Being and existence as such, as thrown into the world, beyond the primordial possibility of the individual to choose. Then using Heidegger’s terms, Being and Existence can be “Uneigentlichkeit” Authenticity also “Eigentlichkeit” Inauthenticity, so Being can exist in the time and existence can be authentic and inauthentic, the phenomenological manifestation of being can be authentic and inauthentic. With that Heidegger in “Being and Time” elaborates an answer to the existential question of being, “Was ist Sein ?”, with an expression very dear to philosophy that describes the phenomenological existence of being as ” In der Welt Sein”, meaning, Being in the World. With this phrase “In der Welt Sein” Heidegger opens the human being’s thought to the understanding of the external world as a concrete phenomenological manifestation of the collective unconscious of a society and of humanity.
Alongside Heidegger, we can approach Sartre, who in Being and Nothingness, with his peculiar strabismus, elaborates the concepts of “Uneigentlichkeit” and “Eigentlichkeit”, in terms in which Das Seins could choose its existence, in good faith and bad faith, that is, being authentic to oneself as a being, or lying to oneself, for which the dialectical dichotomy between truth and lie, for which the search for truth is an act of consciousness of the Being in its Existence to be authentic to itself. Contrasting the inauthenticity of the lie that manipulates reality and manipulates the truth, hence the ethical, political, social and behavioural relevance of the authenticity of being and existence. Sartre’s reflection on the humanism and subjectivism of existence does not only concern the theoretical level of philosophy, its being a speculative and abstract approach, but it’s also of interest and relevance from an ethical, political, social and behavioural point of view. The one who proves the impossibility of choice is Karl Jaspers, who considers the existence of being a tragic impossibility of choice, among all possible existences, the only true existence of being is the only one we live. And since Karl Jaspers was the greatest psychopathologist of the 20th century, for whom he approached Das Seins and existentialism with philosophy and psychology, and defined being as an existence that interacts with the world, on an existential and psychic sphere as a manifestation of Das Seins. Then becomes possible to unequivocally convene that war and conflicts are primordial traumas of the collective human psyche. whereby we see the eradication of being and existence from the world.